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The Relationship between Smartphone Overdependence and the Adolescents’ Smartphone Use Time during Tasks: Moderating Effects of Purposeful Use for Tasks

Vol.7 (No.1) 2022
Author
admin
Date
2022-03-30 17:30
Views
123

Abstract


Purpose: This study aims to examine and understand how the use of smartphones for the task affects excessive dependence on smartphones in adolescence. In particular, it seeks to verify the moderating effect of the proportion of the purposeful use for the task. It is to confirm the effect of smartphone using time during one's task on smartphone overdependence. In particular, it has been confirmed whether the proportion used to carry out the task affects the excessive dependency on smartphones by smartphone using time.

Method: The data from the survey on smartphone overdependence by the National Information Society Agency in 2018 was used, and a three-step hierarchical regression analysis was performed on middle and high school students. The dependent variable was the level of smartphone overdependence, the independent variable was the time spent on using the smartphone during the task, and the moderating variable was the proportion of purposeful use for the task.

Results: It was found that the longer the time of using smartphones during the task, the higher the level of smartphone overdependence, yet the proportion of purpose of use did not have a significant relationship with smartphone-related overdependence. Furthermore, the proportion of targeted use of the task has changed the nature of the relationship between smartphone usage time during the task and the level of excessive smartphone dependence. When the smartphone use time during the task is short, the proportion of the smartphone use for the task lowered the overdependence, but the proportion of smartphone use for their task did not affect smartphone overdependence when the smartphone use time during the task was long.

Conclusion: The time spent on using smartphones during the task increased the level of smartphone overdependence, and the level of overdependence was changed by the proportion of purposeful use for the task. This means that even if adolescents use a smartphone for tasks such as studies, it is important to create an environment that can help manage on their own to ensure that they can use their smartphones for their intended purpose, along with the efforts to shorten the time of use of a smartphone.

Keyword:Smart Phone, Overdependence, Addiction, Adolescent, Purposeful Use
  • Purpose: Discussions on AI Ethics Education is still unfolding without a clear direction set in terms of its nature, goals, teaching and learning methods, etc. In particular, teaching and learning of AI Ethics Education needs to be discussed in the methodological aspect of effectively delivering new contents of Applied Ethics to students. With this in mind, the purpose of this study is to explore teaching and learning that can effectively implement AI Ethics Education, and to propose a method that can be applied to Elementary and Secondary Education. Method: This study intends to utilize the methods of literature studies and comparative studies. First of all, using literature research method, we will examine recent discussions related to AI Ethics Education. In addition, using comparative research method, we will compare and review the system of Ethics Education currently in place in Elementary and Secondary Schools and the system of AI Ethics education that is the subject of discussion. The above research method will contribute to clarifying the unique characteristics of the teaching and learning of AI Ethics Education presented through this study. Results: AI Ethics education could be said as an order about the relationship between humans and AI. At this time, AI Ethics Education needs to go in the direction of establishing a relationship of mutual cooperation rather than mutual checks between AI and humans. Building a community between AI and humans, and practicing a Cooperative Relationship in that community, should be developed through school education which is a professional activity of education. To this end, it is necessary to understand the nature of Teaching and Learning especially in AI Ethics Education, and to construct and implement appropriate teaching and learning methods. Conclusion: Teaching and learning of Ethics Education specialized in AI Ethics Education can be divided into those that target AI and those that target Elementary and Middle School Students. At this time, the target of AI Ethics Education through School Education will be primarily adolescent students attending Elementary and Secondary Schools. However, in their Ethics Education Teaching and Learning, AI can perform the functions of others or peers who have important influence. Therefore, it is proposed to develop and apply Teaching and Learning Method of Cooperative Learning that constitutes ethical AI, and enables such ethical AI to function as a subject of cooperative Learning in AI Ethics Education through Elementary and Secondary Education.
    Keyword:Artificial Intelligence, AI Ethics Education, Elementary and Secondary Education, Moral Education, Teaching and Learning
  • Purpose: The GwangJaemulbo was a middle version edition from in a 1798, the Jaemulbo with which had been known by Encyclopedia written in the 19century, differ from nature, human, material. The reason why has been who the people frame a hypothesis that remade with a contaminant and object, but collect words. Numerical figure was counted by polygraph & subentries, improved the lexicon, recollect diverse different versions. The purpose of Vocabulary lesson in enlightening brain cell rule sense of social society has supplemented with mental culture. Method: The Suanxueqimeng in china Transcription materials in from those receive radio signals. Benran zhi xing is on the Mulmyeonggo. Master of Choi Seok-jeong’s Gusuryak has been learning, compared with Yinyang and Wuxing of the Positive School in mathematics principles. In terms of ecological history, this paper analyzed the names of animals and plants that need to be examined in the context of ecological history among the Korean equivalents found in Mulmyeonggo. Results: Arithmetic of Humanities, geography, astronomy application, adopted with humanities and social sciences. Therefore, solar and lunar copula are Jaemulbo. The realist were aware of the following facts Access to culture, language access is the fastest way. Among the approaches to language vocabulary is the fastest way. The right way to approach cultural language is a way to access. Regarding the nature of headwords, it was pointed out that there was on influence of Chinese literature by mentioning cases based on gender, direction, season, age, size, color. Regarding the importance of Mulmyeonggo in folk history, this study found that the book included various vocabulary that sheds light on the folklife in Joseon during the period. Conclusion: 『Jaemulbo』 in the 18th century and 『Mulmyeonggo』, 『Gwangjaemulbo』 in the 19th century inherited 『Donguibogam-tangaekpyeon』 genealogy. Their basic book had been 『Bonchogangmok』(1596) in China. In addition, based on the aggregated figures, the distribution of synonyms, foreign languages, and the author’s opinions was reviewed, and the characteristics according to the frequency were examined. This research on natures books that was educating wording , self-examination, learning contexts awaken human is maturing continuously.
    Keyword:Vocabulary of Mulmyŏnggo, The GwangJaemulbo, The Suanxueqimeng, Benran Zhi Xing, Ecological Contents
  • Purpose: This study aims to find a way to apply Korean traditional Seodang culture to cyber education and bring some implication to modern Korean society’s multiculturalism. To this end, it understands the characteristics of knowledge and education in the era of the 4th industrial revolution. That is the next-generation industrial revolution made up of the convergence of information and communication technology (ICT). Method: The specific method for this study is based on literature research. To back up the field experience, authors visited the Korean traditional Seodang and interviewed with its Teacher (called Hunjang). Results: The 4th industrial revolution has brought about digital natives who can understand and utilize that civilization freely. They make great use of and enjoy digital environments such as personal computer, cellular phone, and the internet. These digital natives are consumers and producers of civilization at the same time. In particular, there has been a great transition from untact to ontact after beginning of COVID-19. Requests to consider virtual reality and metaverse have increased. This study suggested some concrete ways to respond to such a trend of civilization transformation. Conclusion: Digital civilization is not limited to education, but dominates the entire modern civilization. Therefore, a practical way to adapt the very traditional Seodang culture to this modern civilization was presented. Such efforts break away from the passive attitude of continuing the tradition. Furthermore, it will contribute to strengthening the media literacy competency of today's youth and bridging the digital gap between the traditions of the past and modern civilization. Seodang, a traditional cultural content in modern Korean society, is expected to be a medium that goes beyond just one of cultural assets and enriches the complex and diverse multicultural situation. This idea comes from that Seodang in the Korean tradition attempted a voluntary bottum-up of voluntary education oriented toward the spirit of the times in a rural society. Modern Seodang culture can be contributed to Korean modern multicultural society.
    Keyword:Digital Native, Virtual Reality, Metaverse, Media Literacy, Multiculturalism
  • Purpose: In recent years, the keyword that penetrates our society is the 4th Industrial Revolution. The 4th Industrial Revolution can be expressed in many ways, but the most important keyword is “connection”, and the key phenomenon from the perspective of this connection is the development of AI. The 4th Industrial Revolution and the impact of artificial intelligence are more than we think, and each academic division in society is discussing how to respond to it, and criminal law is no exception. In particular, fierce debate continues as to whether the criminal law will recognize the criminal subjectivity of AI, and whether punishment for artificial intelligence will be possible. With the development of AI, infringement of legal interests, whether intentional or unintentional, can become a reality. When users and developers intentionally use artificial intelligence for crimes, AI becomes a human tool. The question is how to deal criminally with cases where legal interests are violated by intellectual activities or source code errors of AI, although not intended by users or developers. However, the premise to think about this is that AI technology is not complete. In other words, in the event of unintentional infringement of legal interests by AI, punishing humans based on this can have a contraction effect on development, resulting in a regression of AI technology with clear social utility. Method: Therefore, this study examines how the criminal law should respond in the event of infringement of legal interests while human factors by AI is excluded. To this end, we first look at the current status of criminal law responding to AI. Here, we will first examine whether a specific operation of AI will be included in an act that is the scope of criminal law, and, if so, whether to recognize criminal identity to AI that caused such a specific operation. Results: Through this process, the specific operation of AI can be subject to criminal law, and furthermore, if there is an infringement of legal interests by AI, it is confirmed that there is room for a crime. However, it is assumed that the action of AI is only unintentional infringement in which human elements are excluded. AI infringes on legal interests by human factors because it has the same meaning as human tools. Conclusion: Since the ongoing development of AI technology can hinder the development of artificial intelligence technology with clear social effectiveness, it argued that the criminal law should be supplemented after administrative procedures.
    Keyword:Artificial Intelligence, The Fourth Industrial Revolution, Changes in Criminal Law, Criminal Subjectivity of Artificial Intelligence, Contraction Effect
  • Purpose: This study aims to analyze the effectiveness of online education in liberal arts coding classes that have different characteristics from general online theory classes. Through this, it is a study conducted to find out what factors to pay attention to in order to increase the educational effect of online liberal arts coding classes and to derive various implications for improving learners' learning outcomes in online liberal arts coding classes. Method: To this end, a survey was conducted on 125 college students who took coding classes. SPSS/WIN 23.0 was used for data analysis, and multiple regression analysis was performed by using learning motivation, class content, and learning flow as independent variables, and inputting learning satisfaction and academic achievement as dependent variables. In order to find out the mediating effect of learning flow, a hierarchical regression analysis proposed by Baron and Kenny was conducted, and the significance of the mediating effect was additionally verified through the Sobel test. Results: In online liberal arts coding classes, learning motivation and class content were found to have a direct effect on academic achievement. There was no mediating effect of learning flow in the relationship between learning motivation, class content, and academic achievement. In online liberal arts coding classes, learning flow was found to have a complete mediating effect in the relationship between learning motivation and learning satisfaction. In addition, learning flow was found to partially mediate between class content and learning satisfaction. Conclusion: Through this study, it can be confirmed that learning motivation and class content factors directly affect academic achievement and significantly affect learning satisfaction of online liberal arts coding classes through learning flow.
    Keyword:Coding Classes, Learning Achievement, Online Education, Programming Education, Learning Flow
  • Purpose: As the non-face-to-face situation triggered by COVID-19 continues for a long time, the desire to experience a sense of reality and realism even through an online virtual environment is increasing, and the metaverse is emerging as an alternative in the field of education. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine the meaning of metaverse, which has become a hot topic in recent years, from an educational point of view and to suggest the possibility of its application in English education. Method: The social and cultural paradigm of the 4th industrial revolution has brought many changes to the education field and is now expanding into a new area with the metaverse. In this study, what kinds of studies and use cases are related to the recent metaverse in Korea, and what are the types and characteristics of the metaverse that are mainly used. In addition, I would like to examine the characteristics that appear in the application process of educational activities using the metaverse reported in this study, how these characteristics can be grafted into English and teaching and learning activities, and what advantages there can be. Results: As a result of analyzing this from the educational aspect, positive factors of metaverse such as an increase in the educational presence and class participation, alleviation of anxiety, immersive learning, and interest and motivation were selected, focusing on the implications for use in English education. It showed potential for use as a tool. As such, it is judged that the metaverse can play an important role at the center of the future English education that is rapidly changing due to the non-face-to-face situation and the 4th industrial revolution technology. Conclusion: The metaverse can overcome the sense of physical distance, and if the existing metaverse platform is used to the maximum to configure a space suitable for the purpose of learning and provide content, a qualitative teaching and learning space can be provided. In the future, based on this study, we expect various types of empirical research to examine the effectiveness by selecting a metaverse platform suitable for the purpose and target of English class and designing an actual class space.
    Keyword:Non-Face-to-Face, Fourth Industrial Revolution, Metaverse, Virtual World, English Education
  • Purpose: This study aims to examine and understand how the use of smartphones for the task affects excessive dependence on smartphones in adolescence. In particular, it seeks to verify the moderating effect of the proportion of the purposeful use for the task. It is to confirm the effect of smartphone using time during one's task on smartphone overdependence. In particular, it has been confirmed whether the proportion used to carry out the task affects the excessive dependency on smartphones by smartphone using time. Method: The data from the survey on smartphone overdependence by the National Information Society Agency in 2018 was used, and a three-step hierarchical regression analysis was performed on middle and high school students. The dependent variable was the level of smartphone overdependence, the independent variable was the time spent on using the smartphone during the task, and the moderating variable was the proportion of purposeful use for the task. Results: It was found that the longer the time of using smartphones during the task, the higher the level of smartphone overdependence, yet the proportion of purpose of use did not have a significant relationship with smartphone-related overdependence. Furthermore, the proportion of targeted use of the task has changed the nature of the relationship between smartphone usage time during the task and the level of excessive smartphone dependence. When the smartphone use time during the task is short, the proportion of the smartphone use for the task lowered the overdependence, but the proportion of smartphone use for their task did not affect smartphone overdependence when the smartphone use time during the task was long. Conclusion: The time spent on using smartphones during the task increased the level of smartphone overdependence, and the level of overdependence was changed by the proportion of purposeful use for the task. This means that even if adolescents use a smartphone for tasks such as studies, it is important to create an environment that can help manage on their own to ensure that they can use their smartphones for their intended purpose, along with the efforts to shorten the time of use of a smartphone.
    Keyword:Smart Phone, Overdependence, Addiction, Adolescent, Purposeful Use
  • Purpose: Rules of Engagement(ROE) refer to rules or directives that define the circumstances, conditions, extent, manner, etc. of the application of force or action that can be considered provocative by the armed forces. ROE do not explain how results are achieved, but rather indicate what judgments are unacceptable. Focusing this, the purpose of this study is to propose an Instructional Systems Design(ISD) configured to reflect ethics in AI’s ROE learning for future warfare. Method: This study uses Development Research Method for develop and propose an ISD. ISD refers to the creation of guidelines into smaller units of teaching or learning. If some guidelines are created for such ISD, it would set the composition and application of ROE, and AI will learn that guidelines through deep learning. And the AI makes a decision with this in the hypothetical dilemma situation where the application of the ROE is requested. Finally, human experts review and supplement the learning results of these neural networks. The sophistication of the AI’s learning and applying ROE would be achieved by feeding back this result to the ISD. Results: This study understands that ROE would also be essential for AI or AI-equipped military robot systems. In this process, AI performs the task of making judgments related to applying ROE, which is the principle of action in specific situations. To do this, Ai’s deep learning first collects necessary information and makes decisions based on it. Next, the results of this learning are applied in a new hypothetical dilemma situation. Finally, human experts' evaluation and feedback on the results are continuously made. This series of processes can be presented as a model of ISD oriented towards the moral development of AI. Conclusion: AI’s ROE learning converges to the learning of moral values. It focuses on the cognitive aspect of morality. Therefore, it would be possible to refine the cognitive moral judgment of deep learning by applying the learning hierarchy of taxonomy of educational objects and the logical test of validity of moral judgment oriented toward social justice. And the moral development of the neural network can be performed by modifying and complementing the results of human experts and feeding them back.
    Keyword:Artificial Intelligence, Military, Rules of Engagement, Ethics, Instructional Systems Design
  • Purpose: This study aims to inquiry the trend of Entrepreneurial Marketing(EM) from the 1987 advent of EM to 2021. We feature how marketing and entrepreneurship interface has evolved over about the past thirty years. Furthermore we will show the some suggestion for EM in the era of Multicultural Metaverse. Method: For the research procedure, the search term EM was searched as the title keyword of entrepreneurial marketing. The research history of EM was about 30 years. The papers were researched for three decades from 1987 to 2021. Results: As a result of the survey, out of a total of 155 papers in the SCOPUS journals, an oversea’s journal site, and 1 article from the RISS in domestic journal. The papers were researched for three periods in 10-year increments. As a result of the survey, out of a total of 155 papers from the SCOPUS journal site, an overseas journal site, 4 papers from 1987 to 1999, 21 papers from 2000 to 2009, 101 papers from 2010 to 2019, 27 papers from 2020 alone, and 2 papers from Jan. 2021. Each papers includes the chronical characteristic of EM. Conclusions: Each decade is characterized by the vision and leadership of representative researchers and their influence on the development and growth of EM. Lately, EM belongs to the growth step of the life cycle. EM has gained significant scholars and practitioners’ attention due to its strong effect on organizational sustainability leading to creating the value.
    Keyword:Co-Creating, Entrepreneurial Marketing(EM), Multicultural Metaverse, Business Opportunity, Sustainability
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of AI and child life guidance subject on pre-service teachers. Method: AI and child life guidance subject was conducted for one year. The feeling of contents of AI and child life guidance subject was investigated, the opinions of the students and the experience of operating the curriculum for children's life guidance for decades. The instructional design was reconstructed. AI and child life guidance subject was applied for one semester to 40 third - year university students attending , 10 of them were selected as research participants. For data collection, in-depth interviews were conducted with the 10 students who experienced. Qualitative content analysis were collected the opinions of the students and the experience to closely examine their thoughts and attitudes Results: Pre-service teachers reported the importance of AI and child life guidance subjects. They understood the AI robot to be used in the field well, acknowledged the value of the robot as an assistant teacher, and said that the method of cooperating with the robot is a future-ready capability. It was said that the AI movie seemed to have provided the motivation for the learning contents of AI and children's life guidance. Children's life guidance learning using robots became interested in the children's life guidance subject. Conclusion: First, If the teacher's competency of using robots, which is an assistant tool for tutors, is developed, pre-service teachers will be able to grow further in the AI era through efforts such as fostering professionalism, teachers should be nurtured to provide guidance by using big data of AI to focus on expanding children's thinking and social relationships. supporting children's thinking expansion, and providing positive life guidance. Second, In accordance with the direction of AI education policy, teachers should be nurtured to provide guidance by using big data of AI to focus on expanding children's thinking and social relationships. Third, A teacher's ability to guide children's life with delicate sensitivity that cannot be aided by robots will be an effective way to guide children's life. The use of robots will enable customized guidance for each child. Fourth, Teachers should develop the capacity of life guidance for child-led interaction to promote the development of children's autonomy. Fifth, Teachers should have an opportunity to check the political and cultural context of teaching-learning through self-reflection because the value and belief system of teachers also affect the interaction with children.
    Keyword:Artificial Intelligence, Child, Life Guidance, Pre-Service Teacher, Instructional Design