AI-Based CYBERSECURITY: Benefits and Limitations
In cybersecurity attackers and defenders can choose strategies and make a decision based on their resources, to attain the rewards, while anticipating the actions from opposing players.
Method: For better analysis, this article use Game theory an analytical framework to identify the position between the attacker and defender in the Cyber domain. Game theory has been used to observe competition among multiple competitors(players) fighting under preset rules. Game theory is appropriate for analyzing cyber interaction between defenders, attackers, and users and what happens as a result.
Results: To respond to infringement incidents, first, for artificial intelligence to more efficiently detect and respond quickly to security threats, it is necessary to analyze vast amounts of security data with human experience and knowledge and enter accurate data for artificial intelligence to learn. Second, it is necessary to strengthen the self-learning ability of security solutions to apply signature analysis, behavior analysis technology, and machine learning technology to enable automated detection and response to AI-based cyber attacks.
Conclusion: Although there are many limitations and risks of artificial intelligence, it is important to concern about how to use artificial intelligence usefully for the welfare and prosperity of mankind.
First, cybersecurity is directly related to national security, and the government has to enhance an AI-based cybersecurity system.
Second, to cope with increasingly diverse and evolving external cyber-attacks. Third, it is necessary to develop R
& D investment and professional human resources to build an AI-based cybersecurity system. Fourth, it is required to overhaul related legal systems to strengthen AI-based cybersecurity. Although there are many limitations and risks of artificial intelligence, it is important to concern about how to use artificial intelligence usefully for the welfare and prosperity of mankind.
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Purpose: Conflicts between Korea, the United States, Japan, North Korea, China, and Russia continue along with the competition for supremacy between the United States and China, and conflicts between South and North Korea and between China and Taiwan continue as the Korean Peninsula is an area with a high possibility of military conflict. However, even in North Korea, China, and Russia, which are closed countries, the influence of the soft power of cultural content such as dramas through the Internet is bringing about changes in collective sentiment even in closed countries. Due to these phenomena, Northeast Asia, which has been confronted with military power, is facing a new phase, and we wanted to discuss the use of AI technology in information warfare by the soft power of the Intelligence Agency. Method: For the expansion of AI use and research on information warfare, the historical cases of Northeast Asia were analyzed, and the evolution of literature and media was reviewed to understand the phenomenon of artificial intelligence (AI) after the 4th industrial revolution, and the themes were selected. In addition, related data were collected and reviewed, and an attempt was made to theoretically establish the research results academically. Results: 1. Northeast Asia is undergoing a transition from order based on hard power through military power to soft power based on cultural content. Just as the spread of culture has expanded faster and deeper the more it is controlled by the state, many researchers in Northeast Asia sympathize with the collapse of the system when asked how long such surveillance and control by dictatorships such as China and North Korea will be possible. According to this phenomenon, the influence of the power of culture on society was analyzed. 2. Artificial intelligence (AI) learning information will adversely affect sound soft power due to manipulated in-formation and biased algorithm learning data. Due to this loophole, the Intelligence Agency will launch an information war using artificial intelligence (AI) technology that suits its own interests. In addition, the Internet will accelerate the propagation speed of distorted soft power and penetrate deeply into human life. Therefore, the Intelligence Agency is expected to analyze the influence of this distorted soft power on its country and start blocking and defending against attacks. Conclusion: 1. The legal system before the advent of AI is expected to be modified or supplemented by more than 50% after the advent of AI. In accordance with this paradigm shift, the authority of the Intelligence Agency in the information warfare of AI was divided into the right to investigate, the right to investigate, and the right to operate. 2. In response to the threat of using artificial intelligence (AI) in information warfare, the government of the country not only expanded the size of the Intelligence Agency but also proposed a hybrid structure of cooperation with the private sector, that is, a model of ‘hybrid defense’. Lastly, in 1983, when tensions between the US and the Soviet Union were in the Cold War, the state-of-the-art scientific equipment, a satellite for detecting nu-clear missiles, recognized the US ICBM launch warning. In response, Lieutenant Colonel Stanislav Petrov, commander of the Watch Command of the Soviet Air Defense Force, determined through human intuition that this was a computer error. It reexamined the case of preventing World War III by judging computer errors through human intuition, not judgment of scientific equipment, and suggested ethical issues in information warfare.Keyword:AI, Information Warfare, Intelligence Agency, Soft Power, Ethical Suggestions
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore and propose a model that allows humans and AI to collaborate in the process of making decisions about ethical issues. Due to AI's autonomy and mission performance capabilities, AI is sometimes viewed as an agent competing with humans. However, since the autonomy and mission performance capabilities of AI are applied at very diverse levels and areas, it is necessary to set certain categories and review their application. This study sought to reveal that more valid decisions can be made by collaborating between humans and AI in the category of ethical decision-making. Method: This study uses methods of literature research and development research. First, using literature re-search to review various previous studies to understand the autonomy of AI in the relationship between humans and AI. Next, analyzing the meaning and characteristics of ethical judgment. Next, looking at a series of models that explain decision making. Second, using development research methods, for design and propose a model in which humans and AI appropriately collaborate in the process of making ethical decisions. Results: The results of this study reveal the following points. First, the results of ethical decision-making by humans and AI involve greater responsibility and related issues than the results of general decision-making. Second, in order to solve these problems, it is necessary to utilize collective intelligence through collective decision-making and at the same time distribute responsibility. Third, as a public and collective entity functioning as a committee, humans become the subjects of final judgment and responsibility, and AI must play a role in actively and functionally assisting such judgment. Fourth, this decision-making process needs to be presented in the form of a model as a principle that can be applied to various specific cases. Conclusion: The conclusion of this study suggests that effective and valid ethical decisions can be made through collaboration between humans and AI in the ethical communication process. And based on this, we present a collaboration model between humans and AI. This model consists of the following steps: First, AI should be actively involved in the process of exploring data sources, collecting data, storing data, and refining and analyzing data for ethical decisions. Second, ethical decisions based on this are made by a human community in the form of a committee as a group thinking process. Third, allow humans and AI to evaluate and exchange opinions on the results of these ethical judgments through mutual feedback and collaboration.Keyword:Artificial Intelligence, Ethical Decision-Making, Decision-Making Model, Human-AI Collaboration
Purpose: This study aims to examine ethical issues following the emergence of ChatGPT, evaluate ChatGPT with a focus on moral competence, and seek ethical solutions. Methods: This study tries to use various literature and various media reports from the East and West dealing with the technology, operation method, and ethical issues of ChatGPT. In the detailed analysis of moral problems following the emergence of ChatGPT, the satisfaction of each element was evaluated based on moral competence, and alternatives were presented. Result: As a result of the study, the ethical issues that can be raised following the emergence of ChatGPT include the possibility of plagiarism and copyright infringement, damage to the fairness of the test, use for criminal purposes, occurrence of social stereotypes and unfair discrimination, invasion of personal privacy and organization's Security exposure, reduced critical thinking, and loss of genuine human relationships. And as a result of evaluating the ethical issues of ChatGPT centering on moral competence, it is evaluated that moral identity, moral sensitivity, and moral practice are possible to implement, but moral judgment is evaluated to have many limitations. In order to solve these ethical problems, a utilitarian approach was proposed. Conclusion: The most optimal decisions and actions related to the design, development, adoption, deployment, maintenance and evolution of ChatGPT should do the most good or the least harm to society. To do this, responsible AI toolkits and frameworks must have an ethical perspective built in, allowing for a balanced view of what is right and wrong. Along with this, a multi-stakeholder approach is needed to create a good AI society.Keyword:ChatGPT, Moral Competence, Moral Identity, Moral Sensitivity, Moral Judgement
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the possible contribution of AI technology in the field of arms control and non-proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction. This is to alleviate international security threats that have risen again since the post-Cold War and to promote international cooperation. For this purpose, we explore the potential of AI as a tool to provide trust-building and cooperation that is the basis of arms control. Method: This study first explores the basic concepts related to arms control and prevention of proliferation of military technology using the method of literature study. At this time, the scope of research is set as prior research related to AI and military technology. Next, using the method of research study, international issues related to arms control are investigated. In this case, the target of the investigation is the current status data reported through international organizations and press releases known through the media. Finally, using the methods of development research, we develop a model in which AI can intervene and play a role in arms control and prevention of proliferation. In this case, the model is designed to take into account the technical aspects of AI and the application of ethical content at the same time. Results: The use of AI in disarmament through bilateral and multilateral international cooperation is significant in that it explores the possibility of mutual cohesion between AI ethics and military ethics. Such AI can be utilized in the process of collecting and analyzing information provided in the form of big data at each stage of the trust-building model. And based on this, it is possible to secure the basis for policy decision-making in the process of making decisions related to arms control. Conclusion: In arms control and non-proliferation, AI functions as a tool to provide bilateral or multilateral trust and performs the following roles: First, information that is the basis for policy decision-making is collected and analyzed. Second, the basis for policy judgment is provided according to the analysis result of the collected and analyzed information. Third, it functions as a rational tool to justify decision-making and predict the future in the process of internal and external discussions that will continue in the future according to this judgment.Keyword:AI Ethics, Military Ethics, Arms Control, Non-Proliferation, Disarmament
Purpose: This study aims to explore ethical implications by looking at some examples of what ethical issues the advent of AI poses to humans. Method: For this purpose, this study showed 7 cases on AI issues. Results: Case1 is a helper that performs a passive function. Case 2, Case 3, and Case 4 are events that take place in an uncanny valley. Case 5 and Case 6 show that AI plays the role of a major agent in the capitalist market in a new virtual or offline space. In this way, human-to-human, human-to-human AI, AI-to-AI can lead to complex and diverse ownership disputes. Finally, Case 7 is a case in which AI itself performs not only cognitive functions but also emotional functions based on information based on deep learning. Conclusion: AI can change the algorithm initially entered by a human by itself. This is a characteristic different from the civilizations that have arrived in the past. In the cognitive realm, AI has already surpassed humans. In other words, the cognitive singularity has already been occupied by AI. We need to prepare for the next step.Keyword:Ethical Issues, Artificial Intelligence(AI) Algorithm, Cognitive Realm, Singularity, Emotional Function
An Exploratory Study on the Metaverse-Based Learner-Centered English Learning Program: Focusing on Culture and Art ContentsPurpose: The purpose of this study is to develop an English learning program using metaverse that can create a variety of educational environments in a virtual space in the post-COVID era. This study was conducted with culture and art as the content subject, and it was designed so that students could experience various types of metaverse technology and mixed reality to increase their participation in learning and the learning effect. It also introduces effective online learning tools that can be used in metaverse-based English learning programs. Method: Students improve their English skills by examining museums with Google Earth and Art&Culture and exploring exhibits and materials related to Korean cultural assets there, exploring Korean cultural assets and art galleries using VR and AR, and collecting related cultural and artistic materials. . In addition, through the process of creating and presenting materials based on the metaverse, interaction was promoted, so that the understanding of each country's culture and arts and English ability could be improved together. Results: The English learning program presented in this study consists of various tasks such as experiencing culture and art contents through AR and VR, collecting cultural and art-related materials, and producing presentation materials. Roughly speaking, in the introduction part, learning objectives and key expressions are introduced by using the functions of the metaverse platform ZEP and the online learning tool 'edpuzzle', and motivation is induced through videos. In the development stage, AR and VR-based apps such as ZEP, Google Earth, Art & Cul-ture, etc. are used to visit museums in Korea or British and American countries, research related culture and art, and collect data. Then, by specifying the topic for each group, use ZEP, Google Earth, etc. to produce materials that can be presented. After that, practical presentations using ZEP and feedback (instructors and colleagues) are provided. In the final organizing stage, there may be quiz solving using QuizN and sharing opinions about the class through online learning tools such as Jamboard and Padlet. Conclusion: In this program, ZEP, a metaverse platform capable of interactive communication such as various avatars, virtual theme spaces, images, and PDFs, was used to enable task execution and practical interaction. In addition, by using various online learning tools in a new environment and context, students will be able to develop self-directed learning skills, problem-solving skills, and digital literacy skills. Through this metaverse-based English learning program, learners will be able to experience various forms of cultural arts and realistic content, and furthermore, they will be able to participate in convergence cultural thinking expansion and future-oriented clas-ses.Keyword:Metaverse, ZEP, Online Learning Tool, Culture and Art, English Learning
The Effect of Learners’ Characteristics on Learning Performance in Non-Face-To-Face Liberal Arts Coding ClassPurpose: In this study, we investigate the characteristics of learners in the liberal arts coding class and study the relationship between learners’ characteristics and learning outcomes to find methods to enhance learning performance. Through this study, we intend to provide the basic data to be used by the schools and educators operating coding education in the real world to establish the teaching strategy for coding education according to the characteristics of the learners. Method: The collected data was analyzed using SPSS 23, as follows. The reliability of the measurement tools on self-efficacy, learning interest, learning motivation, digital literacy, and learning satisfaction were calculated and verified. Through a survey, data on self-efficacy, learning motivation, digital device efficacy, learning satisfaction, and academic achievement were collected and descriptive statistical analysis was performed to identify trends. We performed multiple regression analyses with self-efficacy, learning motivation, and digital device efficacy as independent variables, whereas learning satisfaction and academic achievement as dependent variables. Before the regression analysis, a Pearson correlation analysis was performed between self-efficacy, learning motivation, digital device efficacy, learning satisfaction, and academic achievement to confirm the significance of the relationship between the measurement variables. Results: The significance test results of the regression model showed that self-efficacy and digital device efficacy had a positive effect on learning satisfaction and learning motivation and digital device efficacy also had a positive effect on academic achievement. In other words, we evaluated that higher self-efficacy and digital device efficacy lead to higher learning satisfaction whereas higher learning motivation and digital device efficacy lead to higher academic achievement. Conclusion: Through this study, we confirmed that learners’ characteristics have a high influence on both learning satisfaction and academic achievement. In the future study, we plan to add multiple factors of learners’ characteristics that affect learning performance and studies on educators’ characteristics to obtain various and meaningful results.Keyword:Learners’ Characteristics, Coding Classes, Learning Performance, Online Education, Programming Education
Purpose: As artificial intelligence(AI) has currently used in many ways related to nurses, there is an ultimate need to consider the ethical values of AI in healthcare. Thus, the present study first investigates several types of AI-based technologies and robotics applied to nursing, such as supportive, cooperative, and collaborative robots. Moreover, several ethical guidelines and requirements for AI, ethical issues and concerns of AI, especially nursing ethical considerations, are explored based on the principles of biomedical ethics and the nursing code of ethics. Method: We searched for existing scientific literature using the keywords “AI or Robot or Nurses”, “AI or Robot and Ethics” in PubMed until March 2022. Next, we reviewed the articles related to ethical issues and considerations in AI-based technologies, especially in the field of healthcare. In addition, a web-based search about robotics in nursing was conducted to find out their specific roles. Results: The direction of ethical discussion of AI has changed from Roboethics, which emphasizes robot’s behavior and the responsibility of robots, to ethics for humans, such as developers and users. There are many ways AI is helping to overcome health care challenges, such as diagnosis, precision medicine, and prediction models. For the safety of human-robot interaction, ethics of caring need to be discussed in close proximity for nurses, patients, or both. Therefore, AI needs to consider patient safety first, do no harm and aggravate the patient’s condition, sufficiently provide to treat diseases and improve patients’ health conditions, and the service needs to be distributed equally without prejudice and discrimination regardless of medical problems. Conclusion: As AI has incredible potential to empower people and widely benefit current and future generations, AI ethics needs to be further discussed in a direction in harmony with the development of related industries. Nurses should understand AI applications and their implications for nursing research and practice to improve patient care and clinical outcome. In addition, careful ethical considerations and engagement with nurses in implementing and evaluating AI-based technologies in healthcare are critical to the best clinical decisions and developing reliable innovations.Keyword:Artificial Intelligence(AI), Roboethics, Biomedical Ethics, Morality, Nursing Codes of Ethics
Linguistic Critics and Ethics on the Glossary of Modern Dictionaries Patterns and Lexicographic DescriptionPurpose: How the lexicons in Korean classical manuscript novels can be lexicon-historically utilized and how often they appears in the Korean classical manuscript novels. The lexicon vocabularies for ethics studies had get ready for the macro-structure, and headwords which complementary elements from micro-structure of texts, technique, sociolinguistic information. Dictionary Information was needed to short and clear, scientific, efficient, dimensional, systematic organization, it is the key to open the global possibility of lexicon studies. Method: That gathering in neologism 405 words, distinguished from 229 words related to covid-19. Comment corpus appeared to frequently were pneumonia, corona, variant of concern, booster shot, revenge spending, vaccination politics, quarantine politics. In order to discover an outstanding speaker, it is necessary to have nuanced understanding on a narrative field. The researcher’s questions and requests, the informer talks about the tale, linguistic aspects lexicon geographical map would displayed with political administrative units such as dialect language which show to with the division of administrative system. Results: We arrange to share information which gave to morphology, grammar, semantics interaction setting up that have unity in the process which the manuscript of contemporary Korean linguistics becomes a dictionary and the lexicographic significance of this Manuscript. Results show that comment data prove invaluable for lexicographic description of neologisms, although experts need to decide to what extent the politically incorrectness of commenters’ language may be used in dictionaries. Conclusion: Standard words what the map based on the lexical items showed idioms phrases that there were a lot of old forms from which originate with time to time. Yet, another evidences which focusing on the lexical distribution, their poor assets provided them to that this present has been studied text linguistics. Focused with the Dictionaries of Literature Term, This study was conducted to review the problems that compilers realized in the process of arranging and defining literary terms during the Japanese colonial period and attempted to resolve.Keyword:The Glossary of Modern Lexicon, Lexicographic Description, Social Linguistics , Colloquial Grammar, Neologisms
Suggestions on Teaching and Learning AI Ethics using Cooperative Learning Method in Elementary and Secondary EducationPurpose: Discussions on AI Ethics Education is still unfolding without a clear direction set in terms of its nature, goals, teaching and learning methods, etc. In particular, teaching and learning of AI Ethics Education needs to be discussed in the methodological aspect of effectively delivering new contents of Applied Ethics to students. With this in mind, the purpose of this study is to explore teaching and learning that can effectively implement AI Ethics Education, and to propose a method that can be applied to Elementary and Secondary Education. Method: This study intends to utilize the methods of literature studies and comparative studies. First of all, using literature research method, we will examine recent discussions related to AI Ethics Education. In addition, using comparative research method, we will compare and review the system of Ethics Education currently in place in Elementary and Secondary Schools and the system of AI Ethics education that is the subject of discussion. The above research method will contribute to clarifying the unique characteristics of the teaching and learning of AI Ethics Education presented through this study. Results: AI Ethics education could be said as an order about the relationship between humans and AI. At this time, AI Ethics Education needs to go in the direction of establishing a relationship of mutual cooperation rather than mutual checks between AI and humans. Building a community between AI and humans, and practicing a Cooperative Relationship in that community, should be developed through school education which is a professional activity of education. To this end, it is necessary to understand the nature of Teaching and Learning especially in AI Ethics Education, and to construct and implement appropriate teaching and learning methods. Conclusion: Teaching and learning of Ethics Education specialized in AI Ethics Education can be divided into those that target AI and those that target Elementary and Middle School Students. At this time, the target of AI Ethics Education through School Education will be primarily adolescent students attending Elementary and Secondary Schools. However, in their Ethics Education Teaching and Learning, AI can perform the functions of others or peers who have important influence. Therefore, it is proposed to develop and apply Teaching and Learning Method of Cooperative Learning that constitutes ethical AI, and enables such ethical AI to function as a subject of cooperative Learning in AI Ethics Education through Elementary and Secondary Education.Keyword:Artificial Intelligence, AI Ethics Education, Elementary and Secondary Education, Moral Education, Teaching and Learning