The Preliminary Elementary School Teachers’ Perceptions and Attitudes on the Future English Education Using AI Technology: Focusing on the Students Majoring in English Education
attitudes about the upcoming future English education, namely the fourth industrial revolution era.
Method: For the research, 91 preliminary elementary school teachers were surveyed. As for a questionnaire
form, this study defines preliminary elementary school teachers’ attitudes in the following categories;
1)interests in English education using AI technology, 2)innovation resistance and anxiety about English education using AI technology.
Results: The results of the survey data were as follows. First of all, the preliminary elementary school teachers’ interest in the impact of AI technology on English education was high, but their interest remain at the ‘personal’(1-2 stages) level. Second, the level of the preliminary elementary school teachers’ innovation resistance
was not high, but the anxiety level was above average. They showed willingness to take AI technologies as instructional tools and positive attitudes toward AI technology-embedded future classroom. On the one hand,
they were anxious about a lack of knowledge about new teaching method and skills related with utilizing AI
technology into their classroom.
Conclusion: The curriculum should be the tailored curriculum to meet their level and needs, which was required in the fourth industrial revolution through the use of AI technologies. It is to show the possibility of using
AI technology to learn English so that we can maintain the current positive perception of the English education
using AI that the preliminary school teacher showed. Also, in order to be open to any paradigm changes related
to English education in the era of the 4th industrial revolution, concerns and proposals for a new method of English education should be actively discussed. Finally, the university of education, which is a teacher training institution, need to introduce to preliminary elementary school teachers what AI technologies can be combined with
English education and what are their characteristics, and to guide how AI technology is being applied to English
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the possible contribution of AI technology in the field of arms control and non-proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction. This is to alleviate international security threats that have risen again since the post-Cold War and to promote international cooperation. For this purpose, we explore the potential of AI as a tool to provide trust-building and cooperation that is the basis of arms control. Method: This study first explores the basic concepts related to arms control and prevention of proliferation of military technology using the method of literature study. At this time, the scope of research is set as prior research related to AI and military technology. Next, using the method of research study, international issues related to arms control are investigated. In this case, the target of the investigation is the current status data reported through international organizations and press releases known through the media. Finally, using the methods of development research, we develop a model in which AI can intervene and play a role in arms control and prevention of proliferation. In this case, the model is designed to take into account the technical aspects of AI and the application of ethical content at the same time. Results: The use of AI in disarmament through bilateral and multilateral international cooperation is significant in that it explores the possibility of mutual cohesion between AI ethics and military ethics. Such AI can be utilized in the process of collecting and analyzing information provided in the form of big data at each stage of the trust-building model. And based on this, it is possible to secure the basis for policy decision-making in the process of making decisions related to arms control. Conclusion: In arms control and non-proliferation, AI functions as a tool to provide bilateral or multilateral trust and performs the following roles: First, information that is the basis for policy decision-making is collected and analyzed. Second, the basis for policy judgment is provided according to the analysis result of the collected and analyzed information. Third, it functions as a rational tool to justify decision-making and predict the future in the process of internal and external discussions that will continue in the future according to this judgment.Keyword:AI Ethics, Military Ethics, Arms Control, Non-Proliferation, Disarmament
Purpose: This study aims to explore ethical implications by looking at some examples of what ethical issues the advent of AI poses to humans. Method: For this purpose, this study showed 7 cases on AI issues. Results: Case1 is a helper that performs a passive function. Case 2, Case 3, and Case 4 are events that take place in an uncanny valley. Case 5 and Case 6 show that AI plays the role of a major agent in the capitalist market in a new virtual or offline space. In this way, human-to-human, human-to-human AI, AI-to-AI can lead to complex and diverse ownership disputes. Finally, Case 7 is a case in which AI itself performs not only cognitive functions but also emotional functions based on information based on deep learning. Conclusion: AI can change the algorithm initially entered by a human by itself. This is a characteristic different from the civilizations that have arrived in the past. In the cognitive realm, AI has already surpassed humans. In other words, the cognitive singularity has already been occupied by AI. We need to prepare for the next step.Keyword:Ethical Issues, Artificial Intelligence(AI) Algorithm, Cognitive Realm, Singularity, Emotional Function
An Exploratory Study on the Metaverse-Based Learner-Centered English Learning Program: Focusing on Culture and Art ContentsPurpose: The purpose of this study is to develop an English learning program using metaverse that can create a variety of educational environments in a virtual space in the post-COVID era. This study was conducted with culture and art as the content subject, and it was designed so that students could experience various types of metaverse technology and mixed reality to increase their participation in learning and the learning effect. It also introduces effective online learning tools that can be used in metaverse-based English learning programs. Method: Students improve their English skills by examining museums with Google Earth and Art&Culture and exploring exhibits and materials related to Korean cultural assets there, exploring Korean cultural assets and art galleries using VR and AR, and collecting related cultural and artistic materials. . In addition, through the process of creating and presenting materials based on the metaverse, interaction was promoted, so that the understanding of each country's culture and arts and English ability could be improved together. Results: The English learning program presented in this study consists of various tasks such as experiencing culture and art contents through AR and VR, collecting cultural and art-related materials, and producing presentation materials. Roughly speaking, in the introduction part, learning objectives and key expressions are introduced by using the functions of the metaverse platform ZEP and the online learning tool 'edpuzzle', and motivation is induced through videos. In the development stage, AR and VR-based apps such as ZEP, Google Earth, Art & Cul-ture, etc. are used to visit museums in Korea or British and American countries, research related culture and art, and collect data. Then, by specifying the topic for each group, use ZEP, Google Earth, etc. to produce materials that can be presented. After that, practical presentations using ZEP and feedback (instructors and colleagues) are provided. In the final organizing stage, there may be quiz solving using QuizN and sharing opinions about the class through online learning tools such as Jamboard and Padlet. Conclusion: In this program, ZEP, a metaverse platform capable of interactive communication such as various avatars, virtual theme spaces, images, and PDFs, was used to enable task execution and practical interaction. In addition, by using various online learning tools in a new environment and context, students will be able to develop self-directed learning skills, problem-solving skills, and digital literacy skills. Through this metaverse-based English learning program, learners will be able to experience various forms of cultural arts and realistic content, and furthermore, they will be able to participate in convergence cultural thinking expansion and future-oriented clas-ses.Keyword:Metaverse, ZEP, Online Learning Tool, Culture and Art, English Learning
The Effect of Learners’ Characteristics on Learning Performance in Non-Face-To-Face Liberal Arts Coding ClassPurpose: In this study, we investigate the characteristics of learners in the liberal arts coding class and study the relationship between learners’ characteristics and learning outcomes to find methods to enhance learning performance. Through this study, we intend to provide the basic data to be used by the schools and educators operating coding education in the real world to establish the teaching strategy for coding education according to the characteristics of the learners. Method: The collected data was analyzed using SPSS 23, as follows. The reliability of the measurement tools on self-efficacy, learning interest, learning motivation, digital literacy, and learning satisfaction were calculated and verified. Through a survey, data on self-efficacy, learning motivation, digital device efficacy, learning satisfaction, and academic achievement were collected and descriptive statistical analysis was performed to identify trends. We performed multiple regression analyses with self-efficacy, learning motivation, and digital device efficacy as independent variables, whereas learning satisfaction and academic achievement as dependent variables. Before the regression analysis, a Pearson correlation analysis was performed between self-efficacy, learning motivation, digital device efficacy, learning satisfaction, and academic achievement to confirm the significance of the relationship between the measurement variables. Results: The significance test results of the regression model showed that self-efficacy and digital device efficacy had a positive effect on learning satisfaction and learning motivation and digital device efficacy also had a positive effect on academic achievement. In other words, we evaluated that higher self-efficacy and digital device efficacy lead to higher learning satisfaction whereas higher learning motivation and digital device efficacy lead to higher academic achievement. Conclusion: Through this study, we confirmed that learners’ characteristics have a high influence on both learning satisfaction and academic achievement. In the future study, we plan to add multiple factors of learners’ characteristics that affect learning performance and studies on educators’ characteristics to obtain various and meaningful results.Keyword:Learners’ Characteristics, Coding Classes, Learning Performance, Online Education, Programming Education
Purpose: As artificial intelligence(AI) has currently used in many ways related to nurses, there is an ultimate need to consider the ethical values of AI in healthcare. Thus, the present study first investigates several types of AI-based technologies and robotics applied to nursing, such as supportive, cooperative, and collaborative robots. Moreover, several ethical guidelines and requirements for AI, ethical issues and concerns of AI, especially nursing ethical considerations, are explored based on the principles of biomedical ethics and the nursing code of ethics. Method: We searched for existing scientific literature using the keywords “AI or Robot or Nurses”, “AI or Robot and Ethics” in PubMed until March 2022. Next, we reviewed the articles related to ethical issues and considerations in AI-based technologies, especially in the field of healthcare. In addition, a web-based search about robotics in nursing was conducted to find out their specific roles. Results: The direction of ethical discussion of AI has changed from Roboethics, which emphasizes robot’s behavior and the responsibility of robots, to ethics for humans, such as developers and users. There are many ways AI is helping to overcome health care challenges, such as diagnosis, precision medicine, and prediction models. For the safety of human-robot interaction, ethics of caring need to be discussed in close proximity for nurses, patients, or both. Therefore, AI needs to consider patient safety first, do no harm and aggravate the patient’s condition, sufficiently provide to treat diseases and improve patients’ health conditions, and the service needs to be distributed equally without prejudice and discrimination regardless of medical problems. Conclusion: As AI has incredible potential to empower people and widely benefit current and future generations, AI ethics needs to be further discussed in a direction in harmony with the development of related industries. Nurses should understand AI applications and their implications for nursing research and practice to improve patient care and clinical outcome. In addition, careful ethical considerations and engagement with nurses in implementing and evaluating AI-based technologies in healthcare are critical to the best clinical decisions and developing reliable innovations.Keyword:Artificial Intelligence(AI), Roboethics, Biomedical Ethics, Morality, Nursing Codes of Ethics
Linguistic Critics and Ethics on the Glossary of Modern Dictionaries Patterns and Lexicographic DescriptionPurpose: How the lexicons in Korean classical manuscript novels can be lexicon-historically utilized and how often they appears in the Korean classical manuscript novels. The lexicon vocabularies for ethics studies had get ready for the macro-structure, and headwords which complementary elements from micro-structure of texts, technique, sociolinguistic information. Dictionary Information was needed to short and clear, scientific, efficient, dimensional, systematic organization, it is the key to open the global possibility of lexicon studies. Method: That gathering in neologism 405 words, distinguished from 229 words related to covid-19. Comment corpus appeared to frequently were pneumonia, corona, variant of concern, booster shot, revenge spending, vaccination politics, quarantine politics. In order to discover an outstanding speaker, it is necessary to have nuanced understanding on a narrative field. The researcher’s questions and requests, the informer talks about the tale, linguistic aspects lexicon geographical map would displayed with political administrative units such as dialect language which show to with the division of administrative system. Results: We arrange to share information which gave to morphology, grammar, semantics interaction setting up that have unity in the process which the manuscript of contemporary Korean linguistics becomes a dictionary and the lexicographic significance of this Manuscript. Results show that comment data prove invaluable for lexicographic description of neologisms, although experts need to decide to what extent the politically incorrectness of commenters’ language may be used in dictionaries. Conclusion: Standard words what the map based on the lexical items showed idioms phrases that there were a lot of old forms from which originate with time to time. Yet, another evidences which focusing on the lexical distribution, their poor assets provided them to that this present has been studied text linguistics. Focused with the Dictionaries of Literature Term, This study was conducted to review the problems that compilers realized in the process of arranging and defining literary terms during the Japanese colonial period and attempted to resolve.Keyword:The Glossary of Modern Lexicon, Lexicographic Description, Social Linguistics , Colloquial Grammar, Neologisms
Suggestions on Teaching and Learning AI Ethics using Cooperative Learning Method in Elementary and Secondary EducationPurpose: Discussions on AI Ethics Education is still unfolding without a clear direction set in terms of its nature, goals, teaching and learning methods, etc. In particular, teaching and learning of AI Ethics Education needs to be discussed in the methodological aspect of effectively delivering new contents of Applied Ethics to students. With this in mind, the purpose of this study is to explore teaching and learning that can effectively implement AI Ethics Education, and to propose a method that can be applied to Elementary and Secondary Education. Method: This study intends to utilize the methods of literature studies and comparative studies. First of all, using literature research method, we will examine recent discussions related to AI Ethics Education. In addition, using comparative research method, we will compare and review the system of Ethics Education currently in place in Elementary and Secondary Schools and the system of AI Ethics education that is the subject of discussion. The above research method will contribute to clarifying the unique characteristics of the teaching and learning of AI Ethics Education presented through this study. Results: AI Ethics education could be said as an order about the relationship between humans and AI. At this time, AI Ethics Education needs to go in the direction of establishing a relationship of mutual cooperation rather than mutual checks between AI and humans. Building a community between AI and humans, and practicing a Cooperative Relationship in that community, should be developed through school education which is a professional activity of education. To this end, it is necessary to understand the nature of Teaching and Learning especially in AI Ethics Education, and to construct and implement appropriate teaching and learning methods. Conclusion: Teaching and learning of Ethics Education specialized in AI Ethics Education can be divided into those that target AI and those that target Elementary and Middle School Students. At this time, the target of AI Ethics Education through School Education will be primarily adolescent students attending Elementary and Secondary Schools. However, in their Ethics Education Teaching and Learning, AI can perform the functions of others or peers who have important influence. Therefore, it is proposed to develop and apply Teaching and Learning Method of Cooperative Learning that constitutes ethical AI, and enables such ethical AI to function as a subject of cooperative Learning in AI Ethics Education through Elementary and Secondary Education.Keyword:Artificial Intelligence, AI Ethics Education, Elementary and Secondary Education, Moral Education, Teaching and Learning
Purpose: The GwangJaemulbo was a middle version edition from in a 1798, the Jaemulbo with which had been known by Encyclopedia written in the 19century, differ from nature, human, material. The reason why has been who the people frame a hypothesis that remade with a contaminant and object, but collect words. Numerical figure was counted by polygraph & subentries, improved the lexicon, recollect diverse different versions. The purpose of Vocabulary lesson in enlightening brain cell rule sense of social society has supplemented with mental culture. Method: The Suanxueqimeng in china Transcription materials in from those receive radio signals. Benran zhi xing is on the Mulmyeonggo. Master of Choi Seok-jeong’s Gusuryak has been learning, compared with Yinyang and Wuxing of the Positive School in mathematics principles. In terms of ecological history, this paper analyzed the names of animals and plants that need to be examined in the context of ecological history among the Korean equivalents found in Mulmyeonggo. Results: Arithmetic of Humanities, geography, astronomy application, adopted with humanities and social sciences. Therefore, solar and lunar copula are Jaemulbo. The realist were aware of the following facts Access to culture, language access is the fastest way. Among the approaches to language vocabulary is the fastest way. The right way to approach cultural language is a way to access. Regarding the nature of headwords, it was pointed out that there was on influence of Chinese literature by mentioning cases based on gender, direction, season, age, size, color. Regarding the importance of Mulmyeonggo in folk history, this study found that the book included various vocabulary that sheds light on the folklife in Joseon during the period. Conclusion: 『Jaemulbo』 in the 18th century and 『Mulmyeonggo』, 『Gwangjaemulbo』 in the 19th century inherited 『Donguibogam-tangaekpyeon』 genealogy. Their basic book had been 『Bonchogangmok』(1596) in China. In addition, based on the aggregated figures, the distribution of synonyms, foreign languages, and the author’s opinions was reviewed, and the characteristics according to the frequency were examined. This research on natures books that was educating wording , self-examination, learning contexts awaken human is maturing continuously.Keyword:Vocabulary of Mulmyŏnggo, The GwangJaemulbo, The Suanxueqimeng, Benran Zhi Xing, Ecological Contents
Cyber Education for Korean Traditional Seodang Culture and Its Some Implication to Multiculturalism in the Korean SocietyPurpose: This study aims to find a way to apply Korean traditional Seodang culture to cyber education and bring some implication to modern Korean society’s multiculturalism. To this end, it understands the characteristics of knowledge and education in the era of the 4th industrial revolution. That is the next-generation industrial revolution made up of the convergence of information and communication technology (ICT). Method: The specific method for this study is based on literature research. To back up the field experience, authors visited the Korean traditional Seodang and interviewed with its Teacher (called Hunjang). Results: The 4th industrial revolution has brought about digital natives who can understand and utilize that civilization freely. They make great use of and enjoy digital environments such as personal computer, cellular phone, and the internet. These digital natives are consumers and producers of civilization at the same time. In particular, there has been a great transition from untact to ontact after beginning of COVID-19. Requests to consider virtual reality and metaverse have increased. This study suggested some concrete ways to respond to such a trend of civilization transformation. Conclusion: Digital civilization is not limited to education, but dominates the entire modern civilization. Therefore, a practical way to adapt the very traditional Seodang culture to this modern civilization was presented. Such efforts break away from the passive attitude of continuing the tradition. Furthermore, it will contribute to strengthening the media literacy competency of today's youth and bridging the digital gap between the traditions of the past and modern civilization. Seodang, a traditional cultural content in modern Korean society, is expected to be a medium that goes beyond just one of cultural assets and enriches the complex and diverse multicultural situation. This idea comes from that Seodang in the Korean tradition attempted a voluntary bottum-up of voluntary education oriented toward the spirit of the times in a rural society. Modern Seodang culture can be contributed to Korean modern multicultural society.Keyword:Digital Native, Virtual Reality, Metaverse, Media Literacy, Multiculturalism
Purpose: In recent years, the keyword that penetrates our society is the 4th Industrial Revolution. The 4th Industrial Revolution can be expressed in many ways, but the most important keyword is “connection”, and the key phenomenon from the perspective of this connection is the development of AI. The 4th Industrial Revolution and the impact of artificial intelligence are more than we think, and each academic division in society is discussing how to respond to it, and criminal law is no exception. In particular, fierce debate continues as to whether the criminal law will recognize the criminal subjectivity of AI, and whether punishment for artificial intelligence will be possible. With the development of AI, infringement of legal interests, whether intentional or unintentional, can become a reality. When users and developers intentionally use artificial intelligence for crimes, AI becomes a human tool. The question is how to deal criminally with cases where legal interests are violated by intellectual activities or source code errors of AI, although not intended by users or developers. However, the premise to think about this is that AI technology is not complete. In other words, in the event of unintentional infringement of legal interests by AI, punishing humans based on this can have a contraction effect on development, resulting in a regression of AI technology with clear social utility. Method: Therefore, this study examines how the criminal law should respond in the event of infringement of legal interests while human factors by AI is excluded. To this end, we first look at the current status of criminal law responding to AI. Here, we will first examine whether a specific operation of AI will be included in an act that is the scope of criminal law, and, if so, whether to recognize criminal identity to AI that caused such a specific operation. Results: Through this process, the specific operation of AI can be subject to criminal law, and furthermore, if there is an infringement of legal interests by AI, it is confirmed that there is room for a crime. However, it is assumed that the action of AI is only unintentional infringement in which human elements are excluded. AI infringes on legal interests by human factors because it has the same meaning as human tools. Conclusion: Since the ongoing development of AI technology can hinder the development of artificial intelligence technology with clear social effectiveness, it argued that the criminal law should be supplemented after administrative procedures.Keyword:Artificial Intelligence, The Fourth Industrial Revolution, Changes in Criminal Law, Criminal Subjectivity of Artificial Intelligence, Contraction Effect