The Preliminary Elementary School Teachers’ Perceptions and Attitudes on the Future English Education Using AI Technology: Focusing on the Students Majoring in English Education
attitudes about the upcoming future English education, namely the fourth industrial revolution era.
Method: For the research, 91 preliminary elementary school teachers were surveyed. As for a questionnaire
form, this study defines preliminary elementary school teachers’ attitudes in the following categories;
1)interests in English education using AI technology, 2)innovation resistance and anxiety about English education using AI technology.
Results: The results of the survey data were as follows. First of all, the preliminary elementary school teachers’ interest in the impact of AI technology on English education was high, but their interest remain at the ‘personal’(1-2 stages) level. Second, the level of the preliminary elementary school teachers’ innovation resistance
was not high, but the anxiety level was above average. They showed willingness to take AI technologies as instructional tools and positive attitudes toward AI technology-embedded future classroom. On the one hand,
they were anxious about a lack of knowledge about new teaching method and skills related with utilizing AI
technology into their classroom.
Conclusion: The curriculum should be the tailored curriculum to meet their level and needs, which was required in the fourth industrial revolution through the use of AI technologies. It is to show the possibility of using
AI technology to learn English so that we can maintain the current positive perception of the English education
using AI that the preliminary school teacher showed. Also, in order to be open to any paradigm changes related
to English education in the era of the 4th industrial revolution, concerns and proposals for a new method of English education should be actively discussed. Finally, the university of education, which is a teacher training institution, need to introduce to preliminary elementary school teachers what AI technologies can be combined with
English education and what are their characteristics, and to guide how AI technology is being applied to English
Instructional Systems Design to Reflect ETHICS in AI’s Rules of Engagement Learning for Future WarfarePurpose: Rules of Engagement(ROE) refer to rules or directives that define the circumstances, conditions, extent, manner, etc. of the application of force or action that can be considered provocative by the armed forces. ROE do not explain how results are achieved, but rather indicate what judgments are unacceptable. Focusing this, the purpose of this study is to propose an Instructional Systems Design(ISD) configured to reflect ethics in AI’s ROE learning for future warfare. Method: This study uses Development Research Method for develop and propose an ISD. ISD refers to the creation of guidelines into smaller units of teaching or learning. If some guidelines are created for such ISD, it would set the composition and application of ROE, and AI will learn that guidelines through deep learning. And the AI makes a decision with this in the hypothetical dilemma situation where the application of the ROE is requested. Finally, human experts review and supplement the learning results of these neural networks. The sophistication of the AI’s learning and applying ROE would be achieved by feeding back this result to the ISD. Results: This study understands that ROE would also be essential for AI or AI-equipped military robot systems. In this process, AI performs the task of making judgments related to applying ROE, which is the principle of action in specific situations. To do this, Ai’s deep learning first collects necessary information and makes decisions based on it. Next, the results of this learning are applied in a new hypothetical dilemma situation. Finally, human experts' evaluation and feedback on the results are continuously made. This series of processes can be presented as a model of ISD oriented towards the moral development of AI. Conclusion: AI’s ROE learning converges to the learning of moral values. It focuses on the cognitive aspect of morality. Therefore, it would be possible to refine the cognitive moral judgment of deep learning by applying the learning hierarchy of taxonomy of educational objects and the logical test of validity of moral judgment oriented toward social justice. And the moral development of the neural network can be performed by modifying and complementing the results of human experts and feeding them back.Keyword:Artificial Intelligence, Military, Rules of Engagement, Ethics, Instructional Systems Design
Purpose: This study aims to inquiry the trend of Entrepreneurial Marketing(EM) from the 1987 advent of EM to 2021. We feature how marketing and entrepreneurship interface has evolved over about the past thirty years. Furthermore we will show the some suggestion for EM in the era of Multicultural Metaverse. Method: For the research procedure, the search term EM was searched as the title keyword of entrepreneurial marketing. The research history of EM was about 30 years. The papers were researched for three decades from 1987 to 2021. Results: As a result of the survey, out of a total of 155 papers in the SCOPUS journals, an oversea’s journal site, and 1 article from the RISS in domestic journal. The papers were researched for three periods in 10-year increments. As a result of the survey, out of a total of 155 papers from the SCOPUS journal site, an overseas journal site, 4 papers from 1987 to 1999, 21 papers from 2000 to 2009, 101 papers from 2010 to 2019, 27 papers from 2020 alone, and 2 papers from Jan. 2021. Each papers includes the chronical characteristic of EM. Conclusions: Each decade is characterized by the vision and leadership of representative researchers and their influence on the development and growth of EM. Lately, EM belongs to the growth step of the life cycle. EM has gained significant scholars and practitioners’ attention due to its strong effect on organizational sustainability leading to creating the value.Keyword:Co-Creating, Entrepreneurial Marketing(EM), Multicultural Metaverse, Business Opportunity, Sustainability
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of AI and child life guidance subject on pre-service teachers. Method: AI and child life guidance subject was conducted for one year. The feeling of contents of AI and child life guidance subject was investigated, the opinions of the students and the experience of operating the curriculum for children's life guidance for decades. The instructional design was reconstructed. AI and child life guidance subject was applied for one semester to 40 third - year university students attending , 10 of them were selected as research participants. For data collection, in-depth interviews were conducted with the 10 students who experienced. Qualitative content analysis were collected the opinions of the students and the experience to closely examine their thoughts and attitudes Results: Pre-service teachers reported the importance of AI and child life guidance subjects. They understood the AI robot to be used in the field well, acknowledged the value of the robot as an assistant teacher, and said that the method of cooperating with the robot is a future-ready capability. It was said that the AI movie seemed to have provided the motivation for the learning contents of AI and children's life guidance. Children's life guidance learning using robots became interested in the children's life guidance subject. Conclusion: First, If the teacher's competency of using robots, which is an assistant tool for tutors, is developed, pre-service teachers will be able to grow further in the AI era through efforts such as fostering professionalism, teachers should be nurtured to provide guidance by using big data of AI to focus on expanding children's thinking and social relationships. supporting children's thinking expansion, and providing positive life guidance. Second, In accordance with the direction of AI education policy, teachers should be nurtured to provide guidance by using big data of AI to focus on expanding children's thinking and social relationships. Third, A teacher's ability to guide children's life with delicate sensitivity that cannot be aided by robots will be an effective way to guide children's life. The use of robots will enable customized guidance for each child. Fourth, Teachers should develop the capacity of life guidance for child-led interaction to promote the development of children's autonomy. Fifth, Teachers should have an opportunity to check the political and cultural context of teaching-learning through self-reflection because the value and belief system of teachers also affect the interaction with children.Keyword:Artificial Intelligence, Child, Life Guidance, Pre-Service Teacher, Instructional Design
The Effects of Immersive Learning for Poetry Writing via a VR GAME for Generation Z Students’ Creativity: Focusing on “Forum VR: Artist of Oz”Purpose: This study aims to examine and understand the effect of immersive learning in poetry writing by using VR games to enhance the creativity of Generation Z. Method: To examine and understand which emotions among the positive and negative emotions the participating students experienced with respect to playing the VR games, the PANAS scale was used for the investigation. Also, this case study was carried out where a semi-structured interview was conducted to examine and understand the effect of immersive learning for poetry writing to foster creativity via VR games. Results: As a result of the investigation conducted via the PANAS scale, it turned out that the Generation Z students experienced positive affection(PA) for the immersive learning via the VR games, and experienced nearly no negative affection(NA). Plus, a semi-structured interview was conducted to examine and understand the immersive learning effect of the participating students. Keywords were extracted from the transcribed interview details by the inducive coding. The extracted themes are 1 fun, 2)collaborative problem solving, and 3)creativity. Conclusion: As the interest in the “metaverse”, which refers to the world of virtual reality has heightened, many of Generation Z are visible as they engage in even economic activities there. It is necessary to pay more attention to designing the learning experience of Generation Z by combining the unique experiences of virtual reality with creativity education. In this respect, it would be worth noting that the opportunities for research findings that the powerful experiential learning provided through immersive learning had a positive effect on the creative poetry writing activity in this study, and such discovery opportunities are quite educationally meaningful.Keyword:VR Game, Immersive Learning, Creativity, Generation Z Students, Poetry Writing
The Relationship Between the Perception of Participation and SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING of the Women Senior Citizens Participating in Health QigongPurpose: In this study, as an opportunity for the active health maintenance, the relationship of perception of participation on the self-directed learning attitude has been analyzed and investigated targeting the women senior citizens who have performed the Health Qigong program. Method: According to the judgement sampling method and the convenience sampling method, the women senior citizens participating in Health Qigong in Seoul, Korea, were selected as the participants, and 183 units of data were used for the analysis. As for the data processing, the multi-way ANOVA was performed to learn about the differences in the program participation according to the educational and athletic background of the women senior citizens, and the multiple regression analysis was performed to validate the influence of the perception and self-directed learning. The statistical level was validated at p<.05. Results: First, the differences between the perception of participation and the self-directed learning according to educational background and athletic experience, which are the background variables, were examined. Physical and social factors demonstrated significant differences for the educational background, and the self-directed learning demonstrated significant differences in the learning initiative, learning attachment, and the problem-solving skill factors. Second, among the results of the multiple regression analysis performed, and among the variables for the women senior citizens' perception of program participation for the self-directed learning, the physical and educational perceptions turned out to be significant, and the psychological and social perception turned out to be statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Health Qigong should be actively used for health promotion in the old age, and the integrated self-directed learning promotion program ought to be prepared to help increase the exercise participants' perception of participation and adequately demonstrate their inner characteristics.Keyword:Health Qigong, Women Senior Citizens, Perception, Self-Directed Learning, Experience
Purpose: As for the safety related technologies in the field of construction and site, and in order to implement an optimal communication transmission and reception related environment, an environment which can help prevent a loss of data ought to be structured. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to identify and remove the noise elements which cause the loss of data via empirical experiments, examine the elements which can help improve communication performance within the range of radio regulations, and develop the communication module appropriate for the relevant environment. Method: The validation methodology of this paper is as follows. A comparison validation test of the customized communication environment compared to the existing communication equipment related application environment, a validation test as to whether a loss of data occurs between the AR devices, a correlation validation test between the occurrence of a loss of data due to a noise increase, a validation and development methodology for identifying the correlation between the transmission distance and the amount of data transmission and reception related variation via the validation test for the impact of data transmission are presented. Results: Since the data transmission and reception volume relatively increases in the customized communication related environment compared to the existing communication equipment related application environment for a certain period of time, it is apparent that the data transmission and reception volume between the AR devices is reduced by causing a network delay due to the overload of network equipment. Hence, it is expected that, in order to address such problems, a communication module appropriate for the environment will be developed, and the noise will be reduced via the validation. Conclusion: As it is necessary to derive the customized values for the communication equipment applicable for the construction site through this study, it is necessary to calculate the quantitative values for the improvement of the data transmission and reception volume during the radio wave amplification, and it has also been derived that it is necessary to derive the quantitative values between a loss of data due to the generation of noise. In the future studies, it is considered that a comparative validation test will be needed in an indoor and outdoor test environment in which an interference from the existing communication environment occurs and an anechoic testing environment in which an interference does not occur whatsoever from the existing communication environment.Keyword:Transmission and Reception of Communication, AR Device, Network Equipment, Noise, Loss of Data
Purpose: Based on the previous studies, in this study, and in order to confirm the effect of the university's software liberal education in a contactless environment, as for the specific factors influencing the satisfaction of learning and academic achievement, the quality of classroom instruction, motivation for learning, convenience of time, and the immersion for learning were derived as the major factors according to the details of classroom instruction and learning contents. In this study, it is intended to examine the effectiveness of the university's basic software education in a contactless environment via the relationship between such factors and their influence on the satisfaction of learning and academic achievement. Method: In order to validate the effect of the university's basic software education in a contactless environment, this study has analyzed the differences between the subjects' general characteristics, quality of classroom instruction, motivation for learning, convenience of time, immersion for learning, satisfaction of learning, and academic achievement by using the descriptive statistics of error, percentage, mean and standard deviation. The correlation of the quality of classroom instruction, motivation for learning, convenience of time, immersion for learning, satisfaction of learning, and academic achievement was analyzed by the Pearson's correlation, and the effect of each factor on the satisfaction of learning and academic achievement was analyzed by performing the multiple regression. Results: It was evaluated that the satisfaction of learning enhanced as the quality of classroom instruction improved and the immersion for learning worked well. It was also evaluated that, as the high quality details of classroom instruction and learning contents were provided, and the higher the motivation for learning, the higher the academic achievement, and the higher the convenience of time, the lower the academic achievement. Even in a contactless environment, the quality of classroom instruction is very important, and it may be said that it is the variable which has the largest influence on the effectiveness of the classroom instruction. Conclusion: It was confirmed that it has had a positive effect on the students' satisfaction of learning and academic achievement by causing high quality classroom instruction, motivation for learning, and active immersion for learning in a contactless environment. Based on such results of this study, it is expected that assistance may be provided for developing and promoting various online education programs.Keyword:Software Liberal Education, Non-Face-To-Face Environment, Learning Efficiency, Programming Education, Learning Achievement
Purpose: The framework of online education is evolving from e-learning to XR-learning. As expectations for the educational effect and market growth of reality contents increase, the South Korean government has established related education policies and is making intensive investments. Generation C, Z, and Alpha learners, Digital Natives, are quickly responding and adapting to the concept of Metaverse. Thus, this study suggests the need for the transition of multicultural education in line with the changes in social, educational technology, and intends to present a rough direction of multicultural education. Method: This study used the approach of literature review and document analysis. The results of this study should be supplemented by quantitative and qualitative studies in the future. For a literature-oriented approach, refer to the government agencies' presentation materials and academic studies. Document survey is mainly related to cyber education materials presented on the Internet and various resources. Results: This study presented three ways of multicultural education using VR: First, 'Korean Culture Experience Program' offering experience of traditional Korean culture or historical facts; Second, 'Korean Life Adaptation Program' to settle down in Korean life including markets, banks, or community service centers; Third, 'education program for multicultural understanding and sensitivity' providing virtual cases of language barrier, social exclusion, and discrimination. In reality, there are still problems that require a lot of investment in content formulation, equipment purchase, maintenance, etc., and securing quality of content and finding suitable education methods. Conclusion: This study aims to present the direction of multicultural education in Korea using the virtual reality. Producing feasible contents needs expensive and very complicated procedures. This study proposes a basic concept how multicultural education in Korean society can be made in virtual space. These VR contents have the advantage of being able to be an education suitable for the actual environment because they have the advantage of allowing learners to experience and discuss directly in virtual spaces. To this end, there remain challenges to overcome both ethical issues and budget problems of developing high-level contents.Keyword:Online Education, E-Learning, XR-Learning, Metaverse, Multicultural Education
The Effect of ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE Literacy Education on University Students' Ethical Consciousness of Artificial IntelligencePurpose: As a core technology of the 4th industrial revolution, artificial intelligence is rising as a crucial technology for determining the competitiveness of nations and industries at a great pace. However, students who are not majoring in it have the tendency to perceive AI technology to be difficult, and hence, a more efficient AI education is needed. The purpose of this study is to present an educational program for the artificial intelligence literacy appropriate for the learner's level, apply it to the classroom, then explore its impact in terms of the artificial intelligence ethics. Method: In this study, an educational program for the artificial intelligence literacy which may be utilized for the non-majors using the tools of artificial intelligence has been designed. To analyze the impact of the educational program conducted in this study on the learner's perception of the artificial intelligence ethics, the single group pre- and post-test which infers the causal relationship by implementing and analyzing the questionnaires on the changed perception of the artificial intelligence ethics before and after the application of the program was applied for the design method. Results: The impact of the education program for the artificial intelligence literacy on the perception of the artificial intelligence ethics has been analyzed through the single group’s pre- and post-test by operating this program. As a result of the analysis, it has been verified that there was a positive change in the perception of the artificial intelligence ethics via the proposed educational program for the artificial intelligence literacy. Conclusion: In this study the impact of the educational program for the artificial intelligence literacy on the learner's perception of the artificial intelligence ethics has been analyzed by proposing and applying educational program for the artificial intelligence literacy for and in college and university liberal arts classes for the non-majors. The artificial intelligence literacy education has had a positive impact on the learner's perception of the artificial intelligence ethics. For the non-major students to fully comprehend the artificial intelligence, including the artificial intelligence ethics, an education which includes experience in the use of artificial intelligence ought to be offered beyond the classes of theory which merely convey knowledge, and towards this end, it was verified that a well structured artificial intelligence literacy education which can more than adequately offer the experiences of using and utilizing the artificial intelligence is necessary.Keyword:Artificial Intelligence, AI Education, Education Model, AI Literacy, Artificial Intelligence Ethics
Impact of “The Online League of Legends (LoL) GAME School” Program on the COVID-19 Education Crisis: Focusing on Korean Students’ Affective DomainPurpose: This study aims to discover the changes made to the affective domain of the students who participated in “the Online League of Legends(LoL) Game School” program during the COVID-19 education crisis. The program was conducted by the Seoul Metropolitan Office of Education’s Student Education Institute from August 2020 to July 2021 for elementary school students(fifth grade onward) to juniors in high schools in Seoul. The program consisted of game English, game science, game humanities, game writing, game-related songs, game music composition, game analysis and game strategies about the online game League of Legends, and adventure-based counseling(ABC) activities. Method: Twenty-nine students participated in the survey to determine positive and negative affections, intrinsic motivation, and the most interesting and challenging activities. The PANAS scale was used to find out whether participants had positive or negative affections about the program. This survey was highly reliable, and the questionnaires were scored on a 7-point Likert scale each. To examine the students’ intrinsic motivation, four intrinsic motivation factors were selected: pleasure, flow, challenge, and growth potential. The participants described the most interesting and challenging activities of the Online LoL Game School program with the help of open-ended questions. Results: The participants had strong positive affections for the program(PA: 5.3928) instead of negative affections(NA: 1.9598), and experienced “flow”(5.26) the most among the four factors. Also, the most interesting and challenging activity of the program was game English. Conclusion: These study findings revealed that 1)the students had positive affections about the Online LoL Game School program, 2)among the four intrinsic motivation factors, pleasure, flow, challenge, and growth potential, the students experienced flow the most, 3)the most interesting and challenging activity was game English. This study uncovered that the Online Game School program influenced the students’ positive affections and intrinsic motivation. Online education programs related to games, in which many students showed interest, can be triggers for students to engage in active learning and reconsider their growth and future careers. The study findings and attempts can help create a positive school climate and bring about social change to provide Generation Z students with a pleasurable and meaningful learning experience.Keyword:League of Legends(LoL), Online Game School, Online Learning, Affective Domain, Korean Students